Emily Willoughby

Paleoart and bird illustration

Theropod Foot Comparison October 2013

Medium: Photoshop CS4
Time taken: ~4 hours
Published in: Kane et al. (in press)

Another diagram for the upcoming evolution book!

The three non-avian dinosaur feet are referenced from Greg Paul diagrams; pigeon referenced from various photographs of pigeon skeletons I could find.

Two interesting points as an animal becomes more "birdlike": the hallux moves towards greater mobility, and the tarsometatarsus fuses. The tarsometatarsus of Archaeopteryx represents a unique semi-fused "transition" state between unfused and totally fused metatarsal bones.